When a diamond is irradiated with x-rays it luminesces (or fluoresces, I never know the difference). This property is used to separate diamonds from gravel in the mining industry. Once the rock is mined, it is crushed to a gravel of small stones and diamonds. The gravel mix is fed into a sorting machine. The first stage is a vibrating bed to spread the gravel evenly on to a short conveyor belt about 4 feet wide (if I remember correctly). At the end of the conveyor, the gravel is launched through an x-ray beam and above this zone are a number of photomultiplier (PM) tubes ranged across the width of the machine to detect the light emissions from the diamonds. When a flash is detected, an air blast is fired at the area associated with a particular PM tube. The blast takes out the diamond and some of the gravel around it. Several machines are arranged in series with the sorted product feeding from one machine to the next in order to reduce the amount of gravel collected with the diamonds.
I was working for a large mining organization which also had multiple support groups. One of the groups was a research facility that had defined the above process, and the machines had been made the same way for many years as per their specifications. The group I was working on was responsible for manufacturing the sorters and now wanted to update the electronics. As is usual the research group looked down on us with some disdain, which wasn't quite as bad as the budgets, which were heavily skewed in their favour.
Since diamonds are the target of theft, the temptation was removed by using "tracers", small cubes that floures... ah, lumines... ah, emit light when x-ray irradiated. While investigating a problem I and another engineer climbed through a hatch to have a closer look. When we came out we discovered that the x-ray generator had been on the whole time. Even though back then life was cheap in South Africa, we were rushed to a clinic for blood tests and an interlock fitted to the hatch immediately. However, this is merely an aside and a warning to all not to make assumptions.
At any rate, the problem we were having was that an air blast would occur simultaneously on several air "guns" for a single tracer. For all the years that this style of machine was made, no one had ever thought of doing the test in this detail and the problem existed in all production machines to that date. In order to improve performance, we mounted a tracer on a rotatable disk. The disk could be moved along the axle across the width of the sorter. I measured the reactions of the PM tubes gradually across the breadth and created a profile and it was obvious there was significant overlap between tubes. The solution was to provide collimators for each PM tube and the results improved dramatically.
The best part was where we got to present the results to management and the research group, who were not happy at being shown up.
Aubrey Kagan is a professional engineer with a BSEE from the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology and an MBA from the University of the Witwatersrand. He is engineering manager at Emphatec, a Toronto-based design house of industrial control interfaces and switch-mode power supplies. In addition to writing several articles for Circuit Cellar and having ideas published in EDN and Electronic Design, Aubrey wrote Excel by Example: A Microsoft Excel Cookbook for Electronics Engineers (Newnes, 2004).
Aubrey..that does not work, it opens my email client and sends a link to this page....
Go to EElife, click home, then Contact us at the bottom, find Brian fuller, send him and email and ask him to pass it on to me. Think that will work (thanks Brian!). Cheers
The book is sold through normal channels- I am afraid I don't have any to sell. I am flattered and would be delighted to provide an autograph. Rather than hijack the thread further, contact me direct via the "email" option above.
Aubrey...howsit man! I am a Salisbury (Harare) boy, but always liked the slower pace of life in Bullies. I was once there on a job and kept going out every hour to feed the parking meter. I then got engrossed and forgot it. Went out and had a ticket - $3! In Harare it would have been $30. My kind of town!
Had a look at your book - I want one! Have you got any for sale (would be nice to have an autographed copy!)? If not I'll have to try Amazon next time I get some overtime.....
I am also ex-Zimbabwe- born and raised in Bulawayo! Funny how many of us there are. Some time back I had an article published in Circuit Cellar and in the self-same issue was an article from someone living in Bulawayo.
As to my comment on the worth of life, I thought I would be diplomatic.
Nice to see another (ex) African on the site Aubrey. (I'm ex Zimbabwe.) Good story.
"...back then life was cheap in South Africa..."
It still is from what I hear. Which is presumably why you're in Canada and I'm in Australia....
David Patterson, known for his pioneering research that led to RAID, clusters and more, is part of a team at UC Berkeley that recently made its RISC-V processor architecture an open source hardware offering. We talk with Patterson and one of his colleagues behind the effort about the opportunities they see, what new kinds of designs they hope to enable and what it means for today’s commercial processor giants such as Intel, ARM and Imagination Technologies.