When I first started to become involved with electronics, I realized that it would be important to invest in a set of tools that would help me build my projects. However, I had lots of questions about which tools to purchase and -- since I was on a limited budget -- which pieces of equipment should I acquire first.
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So, for any beginners out there, the following is my list in order of what I have found to be important along with some of the mistakes I've made along the way:
A location: I would recommend first finding a place where you can put all your tools in a somewhat organized fashion. For quite some time, I made the mistake of trying to have things here and there around the house. I found that I would frequently misplace things and -- instead of spending time working on a project -- I would spend time looking for the tool that I needed. The location in your house does not need to be big, but should be a dedicated space.
A desk or a workbench: This is a fantastic addition. It does not need to be fancy -- it's a place to leave your projects in between your working sessions. I started out with a small card table that was approximately $30 from Walmart. I later upgraded to this workbench from Harbor Freight. (Actually, there are few Harbor Freight items that I would recommend, but this is one of them.) It has four integrated drawers and a hardwood top. I got it on sale for $106 delivered to my door, and it has proved to be a great upgrade.
A computer: How would you perform tasks like programming and PCB layout without a computer? This item is a must. It does not need to be dedicated to electronics design, but you can pick up a cheap laptop or desktop for around $300.
A breadboard: I personally have a very nice integrated breadboard that I was able to pick up for a very reasonable price (approximately $35) from eBay. This is the predecessor to the Global Specialties PB505. As you can tell, I got it for quite the discount. All I needed to do was repair a damaged potentiometer to get my eBay special working.
A soldering iron: I am not talking about one of those $10 Radio Shack "fire starters," but a real, temperature-controlled soldering iron. There are a lot of options out there (including this open-source device), but I would recommend saving up your pennies and getting a combination hot air rework station as well as soldering iron. I purchased the Aoyue 968, which has since been upgraded to the 968 A+. It was about $160 at the time. In fact, I have used the hot air rework station for reflowing my boards more than I have used the soldering iron side. This truly has been a workhorse in my lab.
Logic Analyzer: Diagnostic tools are a must. Before the oscilloscope, I would purchase a logic analyzer. I purchased the open source Open Bench Logic Sniffer for $50 and it has served me well. This tool has been great to be able to see if I am actually communicating what I want over my serial communication lines.
Oscilloscope: Once you have acquired all of the tools noted above, it really is well worth getting an oscilloscope. An oscilloscope is great for looking at issues that are harder to diagnose. It can help you identify issues with a serial communications signal, DAC outputs, and many other areas. The biggest problem is that there are so many choices -- where does one start?
Do you go for analog or digital? Will a $200, 10MHz USB scope do what you want it to do? For a starter oscilloscope, I would say that you can get what you need for 50 to $200. I was able to get an analog, 4-channel, 300MHz, Tek 2465 with two probes for $200. I had to do some eBay shopping to find it, but it has proved to be a very good scope for the money. Right now, I am looking to add a digital scope to my tool kit. For that one, I am looking at the Rigol DS2000 series. The nice thing about this series is that they have a gradient weighted display that makes the screen display the signals in a very similar manner as an analog scope. But they run 800 to $1600, so I am going to have to save up for this item.
Power Supply: All of the above and no power supply? Until now, I've been able to get by with simple "wall warts" and breadboard power supplies that had fixed voltages. I finally was given a dedicated, bench-top power supply by a friend. This power supply is an old analog, dual-output supply that can regulate both voltage and current. This may not be a necessity for many folks, but if the price is right it will make for a very nice addition to your laboratory.
So far, I have spent about $700 on my home electronics workshop. This cost excluded the cost of the computer as I already had one around that I use. Do I think that my workshop is complete? Can you ever have enough tools? Of course not! I do have a few things that are yet on my watch list. As I indicated, I am looking to purchase a DSO (digital sampling/storage oscilloscope), but I would also like to have an arbitrary waveform generator, a small reflow oven, and perhaps even a small pick-and-place machine.
One tool that I am very tempted to get is the new Red Pitaya that is on Kickstarter right now. My only hesitation is that it is only a 125Msp/sec (mega-samples per second) per channel device -- ideally I would like to have a 1Gsp/sec device. The nice thing though, despite the lower sampling rate, is that it has a 14-bit sample depth vs. the standard 8-bit sample depth on most DSO scopes.
Have I missed anything? I am always open to new tools for the workshop. Please let me know in the comments below (I'm sure my wife would appreciate it).
A good Digital scope will allow you to "see" digital streams, A/D steps and resolution. Also there is really no differentiation between digital and anlog signals since ALL digital signals have finite rise and fall times, ringing, etc. so when you get down to it all signals are analog.
Now there are special multi channel logic analyzers with built in I2C, SPI, CAN, and other serial protocol analyzers, but these come at a high cost if you REALLY want to see the analog component of the signals.
I have to admit that I frequently have gotten away with crimping with a standard pair of needle nose pliers and a small chisel and hammer. Because I am mostly building personal stuff this has not been an issue. I would love to hear about a good set of crimpers that covered a wide range of devices for under say $65. I realize that is asking a lot as many specialized crimpers are in the $200+ range.
The problem with crimpers is that you can't get away with one, but need a whole selection...
I make sure I do a fair amount of crimping at work, because when I'm choosing connectors I want to know what I'm inflicting on our techs. And, I've made sure to get decent crimpers for the connectors we use all the time.
Of course, if anyone has suggestions for THE ONE crimper to get, I'm interested -- can anything crimp ferrules, RJ jacks, DB & HD pins, Mini-Fit Jrs, Micro-Fit Jrs (ugh!), CPC pins, etc with ease?
One tool that I forgot (and hope that most already have) is a digital multi-meter. The usual suspects of a nice working wire stripper, needle nose pliers, wire cutters, etc.. for all those hand tools that we take for granted. If you are doing any crimp connectors a quality hand crimpper is essential.
Those are all good suggestions. I am thinking about writing up a follow up article on the other small things that I have around. One of these days I may need to get a lighted magnifying glass. In fact, I have one from the 50's on my desk at work right now. They are useful, though somewhat cumbersome. Thanks again for the suggestions!
I would have suggested a lighted magnifying glass most useful for the small parts and for inspection of the PC board for shorts etc. The other addition I would suggest is a low cost signal generator: sine waves and digital would be fine. I am sure there are low cost used options on the market but it does not have to be super fancy just working..
I was not familiar with that brand. I just went to their website to check them out. It looks like they have some nice products. I am glad to see that I am not the only one with expensive tastes in my writing devices.
Pen with heft? My trusty Rotring rolling ball pen. Anodized aluminum body, spring base for the ink cartridge. Weighs as much as my Galaxy Nexxus S.
After 18 years, the anodizing is wearing from the corners and the cap does not snap on as crisply as when new, but the way in which it warms to the temperature of my hand and dampens the pressure I may apply keep me buying better quality refills for it.
Side note - distinctive pens are not likely to walk in a small company. Nor are you as likely to leave it laying about. Quality is inexpensive.
Yeah, I have found that this is something that seems to be personal preference. I have not yet had any major issues dealing with ringing in my signal traces. This may be, though, because most of my boards are under 2" square, and usually are not sending serial coms over long wires.
As for debugging the signals, in the first boards I always include a via that I can solder wires into for each of the serial coms and hence have nice test points. Another things is that if the logic analyzer is not registering the signal well, then you can know that you need to get your scope out to debug it.
I have yet to need a stereo scope, but I might have to put that on my watch list for ebay and see if I can get a good one cheap.