With 16nm chips moving to production this year, companies are actively developing the 10nm and 7nm technology nodes. These generations are interconnect heavy -- more than 50% of their cost is due to the back-end-of-line (BEOL) wiring levels, and designs are dominated by interconnect delay. Engineers are taking several paths to get around this trend, many of which will be discussed at the IITC Advanced Metallization Conference in May in San Jose.
"Interconnect performance/area/cost scaling the foremost issue for 10nm and 7nm nodes," Geoffrey Yeap, vice president of technology at Qualcomm, said in a keynote at the 2013 International Electron Devices Meeting.
First, interconnect performance and reliability depends heavily on diffusion barriers, liners, and cap layers for copper. These can be improved in multiple ways.
For example, engineers can make these structures thinner and improve their quality by using CVD or ALD instead of PVD and by using alternative materials. At the May conference, researchers from IBM and Applied Materials will present results of their work on multi-layer SiN caps and cobalt caps and liners that provide a 1000x improvement in electromigration lifetime, as well as enhancements in time-dependent dielectric breakdown.
Separately, double patterning techniques have become common in the BEOL. For further scaling, setups like self-aligned double and quad patterning and triple lithography/etch with block masks are necessary. Companies are innovating to lower the processing costs for these technologies while meeting overlay, line edge roughness, uniformity, variability, and layout requirements.
Another emerging trend is the integration of memory devices into logic BEOLs. This includes stacked capacitors for embedded DRAM as well as resistive RAM for microcontrollers, both of which have seen product announcements recently. At the May conference, Intel will present a system to integrate 3D capacitors into 22nm copper/low-k stacks. The capacitors provide an eDRAM density of 17.5 Mb/mm2, which Intel claims is 3x higher than the most aggressive SRAM.
The dramatic increase of copper resistivity at smaller nodes is motivating research on alternative conductors. Researchers from AIST will show 8nm graphene interconnects that demonstrate an important milestone: lower resistivity compared to copper.
In addition, Imec will show vertical carbon nanotube interconnect prototypes with a mean free path comparable to copper. These promising proof-of-concept demonstrations are expected to motivate the process integration research required to take these technologies to the next level. Besides carbon-based interconnects, several other materials are being studied.
Meanwhile, 3D interconnect systems are being actively pursued by the DRAM industry for wide I/O DRAM and hybrid memory cubes. At the conference, CEA-LETI will present experimental results on monolithic 3D technology, which provides through silicon vias (TSVs) as small as 50 nm. The high density of TSVs will provide a 55% area reduction and a 47% energy-delay product improvement for a 14nm FPGA. In addition, Globalfoundries will describe a near-zero keepout zone around TSVs.
In addition to these topics, innovations are occurring in ultra-low-k dielectrics, circuit techniques to handle interconnect issues, short-wire architectures, and many other areas. The next few years should be exciting for interconnect technologists.
-- Deepak Sekar is a director at Rambus Labs and a general co-chair of the 2014 IITC Advanced Metallization Conference. Zsolt Tőkei, program director for nano-interconnects at Imec and general co-chair of the conference, and Vincent McGahay, an IBM senior technical staff member and program co-chair of the conference, also contributed to this article.