The smart grid is an important, emerging source of embedded systems with critical security requirements. One obvious concern is financial: for example, attackers could manipulate metering information and subvert control commands to redirect consumer power rebates to false accounts. However, smart grids imply the addition of remote connectivity, from millions of homes, to the back end systems that control power generation and distribution. The ability to impact power distribution has obvious safety ramifications, and the potential to impact a large population increases the attractiveness of the target.
These back end systems are protected by the same security technologies (firewalls, network access authentication, intrusion detection and protection systems) that today defend banks and governments against Internet-borne attacks. Successful intrusions into these systems are a daily occurrence. The smart grid, if not architected properly for security, may provide hostile nation states and cyber terrorists with an attack path from the comfort of their living rooms. Every embedded system on this path – from the smart appliance to the smart meter to the network concentrators – must be secure.
The good news is that utilities and their suppliers are still early in the development of security strategy and network architectures for smart grids; a golden opportunity now exists to build security in from the start.
The increasing reliance of embedded systems in commerce, critical infrastructure, and life-critical function makes them attractive to attackers. Embedded industrial control systems managing nuclear reactors, oil refineries, and other critical infrastructure present opportunity for widespread damage. To get an idea of the kinds of sophisticated attacks we can expect on the smart grid, look no further than the recent Stuxnet attack on nuclear power infrastructure.
Stuxnet infiltrated Siemens process control systems at nuclear power plants by first subverting the Microsoft Windows workstations operators use to configure and monitor the embedded control electronics (Figure 1
). The Stuxnet worm is likely the first malware to directly target embedded process control systems and illustrates the incredible damage potential in modern smart grid security attacks.
Figure 1 - Stuxnet infiltration of critical power control system via operator PC