Superconductivity theories abound, but thus far none has led to a room-temperature superconductor. Now U.S. Department of Energy researchers believe a new theory—namely, that superconductivity is based on an undiscovered state of matter—may hold the key to a better understanding of the phenomenon.
"The involvement of an additional phase, once fully understood, might open up new possibilities for achieving superconductivity at even higher temperatures in these materials," said Ruihua He, a researcher at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory .
The new theory comes from U.S. Department of Energy researchers at Berkeley Lab, the University of California at Berkeley, and the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory at Stanford University (Palo Alto, Calif.; SLAC's original name was the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center).
Together the labs coordinated separate experiments to zero in on whether superconductivity is based on a phase of matter other than the familiar solid, liquid or gas. The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource used the magneto-optical Kerr effect, Berkeley Lab's Advanced Light Source team used angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, and a second group at Berkeley Lab used time-resolved reflectivity with a pump pulse from a laser.
The resulting detailed characterization of the same high-temperature superconductor (bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide) led to the theory that a separate state of matter exists at temperatures just above the superconducting state. Next, the researchers plan to explore the electronic properties of this new state of matter in a bid to discover how to extend superconductivity to room temperature.
Quite interesting indeed since having superconductivity at a room temperature would make a shift in energy storage and transportation without loss... or at least minimal loss.
Superconductors offer no resistance to the current that goes through and lets not forget about the Meissner effect which allows the rejection of magnetic fields whatever the polarity. The levitating trains would become very common.
I'm generally as optimistic about the future as the next guy, but it seems very early to be talking about how to apply this effect. A new state of matter would be a fundamental change in what we understand about 'stuff' in general. If they can actually observe this new state and begin to understand it then maybe we can start talking about what it would be good for.
David Patterson, known for his pioneering research that led to RAID, clusters and more, is part of a team at UC Berkeley that recently made its RISC-V processor architecture an open source hardware offering. We talk with Patterson and one of his colleagues behind the effort about the opportunities they see, what new kinds of designs they hope to enable and what it means for today’s commercial processor giants such as Intel, ARM and Imagination Technologies.