LONDON – Scientists at IBM Research in Zurich, Switzerland, have reported a method to store multiple bits reliably in a phase-change memory cell. The team used four levels (2-bits) per memory cell in a 200 k-cell array implemented in a 90-nm process technology and reported a coding method to overcome the tendency of the material properties to relax over time. The memory cell is of the mushroom type with doped Ge2Sb2Te5 as the phase-change material.
Phase-change memory is a nonvolatile memory technology based on changing the material phase and electrical resistance of a chalcogenide layer by the use of electrical heating. It has been touted as possible replacement for both flash memory and DRAM but the technology has proved difficult to scale below 90-nm.
Nonetheless IBM stated that: "With a combination of speed, endurance, non-volatility and density, PCM can enable a paradigm shift for enterprise IT and storage systems within the next five years."
The contribution from IBM's Zurich researchers was to use a modulation coding scheme applied to small clusters of memory cells, to overcome the problem of short-term drift in multi-bit PCM, which causes the stored resistance levels to shift over time, which in turn creates read errors.
In the present work, IBM scientists used four distinct resistance levels, which are due to different amorphous, crystalline proportions between the electrodes, to store the bit combinations 00, 01 10 and 11.
"We apply a voltage pulse based on the deviation from the desired level and then measure the resistance. If the desired level of resistance is not achieved, we apply another voltage pulse and measure again – until we achieve the exact level," said Haris Pozidis, manager of memory and probe technologies at IBM Research Zurich.