Editor's note: This multi-part article is an expanded version of the article by the same title published in the EE Times print edition.
Audio Amplifier Background
The goal of audio amplifiers is to reproduce input audio signals at sound-producing output elements, with desired volume and power levels—faithfully, efficiently, and at low distortion. Audio frequencies range from about 20 Hz to 20 kHz, so the amplifier must have good frequency response over this range (less when driving a band-limited speaker, such as a woofer or a tweeter). Power capabilities vary widely depending on the application, from milliwatts in headphones, to a few watts in TV or PC audio, to tens of watts for "mini" home stereos and automotive audio, to hundreds of watts and beyond for more powerful home and commercial sound systems—and to fill theaters or auditoriums with sound.
A straightforward analog implementation of an audio amplifier uses transistors in linear mode to create an output voltage that is a scaled copy of the input voltage. The forward voltage gain is usually high (at least 40 dB). If the forward gain is part of a feedback loop, the overall loop gain will also be high. Feedback is often used because high loop gain improves performance—suppressing distortion caused by nonlinearities in the forward path and reducing power supply noise by increasing the power-supply rejection (PSR).
The Class D Amplifier Advantage
In a conventional transistor amplifier, the output stage contains transistors that supply the instantaneous continuous output current. The many possible implementations for audio systems include Classes A, AB, and B. Compared with Class D designs, the output-stage power dissipation is large in even the most efficient linear output stages. This difference gives Class D significant advantages in many applications because the lower power dissipation produces less heat, saves circuit board space and cost, and extends battery life in portable systems.
Join our online Radio Show on Friday 11th July starting at 2:00pm Eastern, when EETimes editor of all things fun and interesting, Max Maxfield, and embedded systems expert, Jack Ganssle, will debate as to just what is, and is not, and embedded system.