Medical-device designers have lots of choices when it comes to operating systems (OSs). The one that’s best for your application typically depends on your specific requirements. In many cases, a strong case can be made for using the Android OS.
Interest in “heavier” mainstream OSs such as Windows, Windows CE, and Linux for use in medical devices has grown dramatically in the past decade, and particularly in the past few years. This interest is driven by several factors. To see the full list of factors, tradeoffs, and to get a general understanding of which OS is best for you, check out the article that lays out in the ins and outs of Android.
Going one step further, if you’re designing something specific, say an infusion pump, check out this application note from Texas Instruments.