Single-mode Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) devices may operate in an advertise-only, "connectionless" mode where devices only transmit advertising packets. This mode requires a greatly simplified software stack, further reduces power consumption and reduces the overall bill of materials. This mode of operation is optimal for applications that do not require bi-direction communication, such as beacons and sensors.
I have described BLE's advertise-only mode in "Make the most of Bluetooth LE advertising mode". In this article, I and my co-author Mark Jakusovszky give you examples of advertise-only mode in action: two reference designs for BLE sensor beacons that can be powered by a single 1.5V AAA or coin cell battery. These designs use EM Microelectronic's BLE controller, and the beacon device is EM's design. (Full disclosure: I was hired as a consultant by EM Microelectronic to work on the design. Mark works for EM.)
Bluetooth LE in advertising mode
Bluetooth Low Energy is the most recent extension of the well-known wireless protocol for personal area networks (PAN) introduced in the Bluetooth 4.0 specification.1BLE is optimized to enable wireless communication between a smart phone and a low duty cycle, coin cell battery operated, potentially disposable device located in close vicinity.
The cost and power advantages of BLE are the result of an asymmetrical network topology, with more complex dual-mode BLE devices, which support BLE as well as classic Bluetooth BR/EDR communications, and single-mode BLE devices, which support only BLE protocol. This topology takes advantage of the simplicity of a single-mode stack for sensor-like devices, but allows for the versatility of a dual-mode stack for more complex multifunctional devices such as mobile phones.
Another distinguishing characteristic of BLE is that a device may operate in different roles depending on required functionality. At any one time, a BLE device may assume the role of a master or a slave; that is, as a scanner, or an advertiser, respectively. As a slave, the BLE device periodically transmits advertising information, waiting for a connection request from an interested master device. As a master, the device listens for advertising information transmitted by other devices and chooses whether or not it wishes to connect to those slave devices. Therefore, in a conventional BLE network, both masters and slaves transmit and receive data, with the intention of "pairing" to an appropriate partner device.
However, Bluetooth Low Energy also allows for an advertise-only, connectionless mode, where slave devices only transmit advertising packets while master devices only use their receive functionality to listen for these packets.
This advertise-only mode greatly simplifies the requirements of the BLE software stack by excluding stack sections normally required for discovery and connection (or pairing) and allowing the use of a lower-cost microcontroller with a much smaller flash/RAM memory footprint. Advertise-only mode also allows data to be simultaneously communicated from a single "peripheral" slave node to multiple master devices. More details on BLE protocol structure and stack portioning, see my earlier two-part article on EE Times (Galeev, ).2,3
Just a point of clarification; the term "advertising" is a Bluetooth SIG/Spec term and does not refer to commercial advertising. It might be best to substitute the word "broadcasting" as this is essentially what these reference designs do; they transmit information (compliant with Bluetooth SIG specifications) without regard to which or how many devices can or want to hear what they are transmitting. As mentioned in the article, this is similar to the way radio and broadcast TV operate.
David Patterson, known for his pioneering research that led to RAID, clusters and more, is part of a team at UC Berkeley that recently made its RISC-V processor architecture an open source hardware offering. We talk with Patterson and one of his colleagues behind the effort about the opportunities they see, what new kinds of designs they hope to enable and what it means for today’s commercial processor giants such as Intel, ARM and Imagination Technologies.