Technology to help match officials rule whether all of the ball has cross the goal-line will be by far the biggest innovation at the football World Cup that kicks off 12th June in Brazil. Through technology, officials hope to avoid the horrendous injustice that marred the last event four years ago, when England was wrongly denied a clear "goal" at a crucial stage of the quarter-final match against its arch-rival Germany.
The image here shows that mid-fielder Frank Lampard's shot clearly crossed the line, but the officials claimed they could not see it do so.
He shoots, he scores? This World Cup will feature technology that for the first time will help avoid bad referee calls, such as happened in 2010 (above) when mid-fielder Frank Lampard's shot clearly crossed the line, but the officials claimed they could not see it do so. Other bad calls from World Cups past can be seen here.
It stirred the government body, FIFA (Fédération Internationale de Football Association) -- for long hugely antagonistic toward the use of such technology -- into action, closely and enthusiastically followed by potential suppliers of goal-line technology (GLT) systems that could securely and definitively trace the ball's trajectory to within millimeter accuracy.
After years of testing, trials and fraught bidding, a little known German company, GoalControl GmbH appeared to have come from the back of the pitch to score against British sports technology pioneer Hawk-Eye Innovations.
The first part of this series looked at the sporting, political and economic aspects of the GLT story, while the second focused more on the technology developments of the various options to emerge. Here's a list of interesting goal-line tech innovations being used in this year's World Cup and the competing approaches.Tech List: