The refresh redistributes the charge between the gates back to the original state - the dynamic leakage mechanism between the gates does not deplete the total charge on the gate pair, so total charge does not need to be "replenished".
Great, we finally see the details, but not enough nit and grit. For example, the refresh must depend on how much charge is on the bottom floating gate. And programming the top floating gate must pull some charge off the bottom floating gate as well, which must be replenished.
Drones are, in essence, flying autonomous vehicles. Pros and cons surrounding drones today might well foreshadow the debate over the development of self-driving cars. In the context of a strongly regulated aviation industry, "self-flying" drones pose a fresh challenge. How safe is it to fly drones in different environments? Should drones be required for visual line of sight – as are piloted airplanes? Join EE Times' Junko Yoshida as she moderates a panel of drone experts.