a very good article giving the gist of what PLC can bring in to tomorrows energy conscious world. This technology is really exciting and if used properly can be a win-win for both the consumers and producers of energy.
The word of caution is however about the security of such systems- if hacked can result into disasters because here we are connecting the appliances and power generating devices on a smart grid. It is not just loss of data or loss of privacy and confidential information, it is the appliances which can get burnt, it is the grids that can go out of control - by the actions of those smart hackers.
I see at least two problems with the idea of providing broadband service over PLC, that don't seem to have been mentioned.
The first is that the link layer service provided by powerlines would be shared by as many households as feed off any one transformer, no? It's not like you can easily isolate one household from the adjacent few, until you meet a transformer. So the bandwidth is necessarily shared, and presumably each household would have its own security codes to keep its internal network safe. (Not a big deal for low bandwidth functions like control of home lighting, of course.)
The second problem is that emissions from powerlines only attenuate as an inverse of the perpendicular distance from the powerline. Not the more common inverse square of distance, that you'd experience with point sources like WiFi or cellular telephony. So I would think preventing RF interference created by these PLC schemes will be more of a factor.
Bert22306 is entirely correct regarding RFI created by data over pwoer line systems. This has been a ten years plus conflict among licensed spectrum users and the illusion of easy savings and easy money by trying to send data of existing power lines. Most field trials of these systems have shown excess interference, insufficient real bandwidth for users and financial loss for the sstem operators. The narrow band systems are OK for in-home control, but the so-called wide-band systems are so far behind bandwidths users expect (50 Mb/s or more)that building such a system is like saddling a dying horse.
Power line carrier (PLC) has been used for high-voltage power system communications since the 1950's. PLC has also been used in the home (120V/240V systems) for lighting control and security for many years.
Programmable logic controllers, PLC's as they are referred to now, were once called programmable controllers (PC's). The name was changed to avoid confusion with reference to desktop computers.
Also tne word is spelled acronym.
Does anybody remember an old and by now gone mini-computer company by the name of "NBI"?
When asked what is the meaning of their name, the answer was "Nothing But Initials"!
Anybody who tried to come up with a really good name for a company might feel a sympathy for that...
Broadband over Power Lines (BPL) has been documented to be a consistent source of radiated RF that interferes with other radio communication services. The FCC has also not enforced its own standards. See http://www.dslreports.com/shownews/New-Docs-Show-FCC-Glossed-Over-BPL-Flaws-102422
Devices sending broadband signals over elevated, unshielded power lines are not the answer to "simple" broadband communications.
Another article published in the EMC community is in http://www.nutwooduk.co.uk/pdf/Issue80.PDF and begins on page 25. This is a technical and regulatorial analysis for BPL in the UK. It highlights the main problems with BPL.
By reading the power line communication my mind went back to 1975. In my college days 3rd and 4th years of curriculam a miniproject to be done.One of this was PLC power line communication. That time all analog and i used AM, carrier frequency 150kHz.it worked within a same phase line in side the building. The modulation circuit uses a transistor and twin T filters (notch) rejection frequecy 50 Hz are used to couple the 150kHz signal to the main line.
This seems to have been a popular miniproject among EE professors. I also did something similar in college back in the 80s.
On another note, my own experience years ago with the first crude PLC system, the X10 system, was not good. Limited address selection on the remote modules meant I was sometimes playing tug-of-war with one of my neighbors over which one of us got to control my swimming pool lights.
I could see a few applications for this like remote control/sensing of street lights/traffic lights and weather conditions in a city. I do wonder about the interference issue and usefulness of broader communications/control using this method. I remember the fad a number of years ago with "smart houses" lots of smoke but no fire. I think there could be some interesting niche applications but I am not sure about general widespread use.
About 5 years ago I had the job to analyze options for Broadband Over Powerlines. The target applications was to provide cheap internet and data access to small towns.
I remember having read a lot of forums and there were a lot of concerns about RF interference (the options used OOFDM) and the inability of Power Lines to shield those RF emissions (as coaxial cables do and even coax cables do have power leakages). Power Lines (mainly made of copper and/or Aluminium) were not designed for such purposes and there were a lot of concerns because there were analysts talking that the noise floor will be increased affecting many existing communications (like public safety servicies; long range airplane communications, etc)
At that time it was a very risky move and the investors decided not to follow that direction. There were implementations but in-house or in-building (in france and spain) but not in the outside. The internet link was a DSL or ISDN and the internal distribution was done using the existing power lines (with about 2Mbps of data rate). Yes it was slow but very suitable for home-automation, building-automation and "intelligent homes".
Thank you for your interest. Please clarify as to what 'Best' means for you. There are many parameters (bandwidth, overall cost, accessibility, additional functions required) on which to evaluate the system - which is your priority? If you give me some clarity on this, I will be able to answer better. All the best for your project.
We want to connect lighting bulbs together and its lighting will be controlled automatic using sensors or manual using control unit wich monitoring each bulbs, also Faulty bulbs Could be detected using it.
each 30 node well connected together to Gateway (GPRS module)
Thank you very much Mr Antoniorohit.
A Book For All Reasons Bernard Cole1 Comment Robert Oshana's recent book "Software Engineering for Embedded Systems (Newnes/Elsevier)," written and edited with Mark Kraeling, is a 'book for all reasons.' At almost 1,200 pages, it ...