Just to address a minor point, open heart surgery is not required to implant a pacemaker or defibrillator. The device itself is placed under the skin via a small incision, and the leads are passed through veins into the heart via catheters. Pacemakers implants are sometimes performed on an outpatient basis, and defibrillators typically involve just an overnight stay.
I don't know much about pacemakers, but I thought that a lot of them now had an inductive loop so you could charge the battery through the skin.
When I was young I saw, in a museum, a nuclear-powered pacemaker. I guess they were used before battery technology improved. The power source lasted quite a while. I'm not sure how it worked, exactly. I think nuclear batteries normally generate heat and use thermocouples to create electricity, but I don't know if that's how these worked.
Drones are, in essence, flying autonomous vehicles. Pros and cons surrounding drones today might well foreshadow the debate over the development of self-driving cars. In the context of a strongly regulated aviation industry, "self-flying" drones pose a fresh challenge. How safe is it to fly drones in different environments? Should drones be required for visual line of sight – as are piloted airplanes? Join EE Times' Junko Yoshida as she moderates a panel of drone experts.