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Caleb Kraft
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virtual reality
Caleb Kraft   11/21/2013 5:15:28 PM
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one of the primary focuses right now in virtual reality is reducing the latency between user input and screen refresh. The slightest delay can cause motion sickness.

Bert22306
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Re: Sure. Gunfire control.
Bert22306   11/17/2013 6:38:27 PM
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Rick, I don't think any application involving humans "in the loop" is a good example of the need for very low latency. The mere fact that the human is in the loop typically creates seconds of slop right there. Or at least 100s of msec of slop. So whether the networks adds a few 100s of usecs or even msecs hardly matters.

Here's another example. When you have to parallel two AC generators, as you do on board ships, or other power generation stations, for instance, you have to close the breakers of the second (or third or whatever) generator at precisely the right time. The generators have to be in phase when they are paralleled. Otherwise, you stand the risk of tearing the generators right off their foundations.

To automate the process, the "close breakers" signal has to be sent within a very tight time window, as the 60 Hz sine waves of the two are in phase. Not something that can be allowed to vary by hundreds of milliseconds.

MS243
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Music
MS243   11/17/2013 9:31:03 AM
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Just saw on TV where the Metropolitan Opera is doing live broadcast(digital) of it's shows to special theatres globally -- attendance is at a record high

rich.pell
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Other apps
rich.pell   11/17/2013 9:20:43 AM
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"Can you name some low latency applications in other industries I've not mentioned?"

Online real-time music performance/collaboration perhaps.

MS243
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Apps
MS243   11/17/2013 7:42:50 AM
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Right now most of the apps in the different industries start out as FPGA's and then move to ASIC's as volume ramps -- some are moved to ASIC's sooner due to SoftError issues or other performance factors.  Each protocol often is custom with only apps like HFT being able to use a standard like UDP with packets over this protocol.  Low latency routers and switches also are important - with each industry doing their own.

rick merritt
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Re: Sure. Gunfire control.
rick merritt   11/17/2013 2:06:21 AM
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I get it that there are many kinds of apps where low latency is valued, but few I expect have as much money to spend as the high frequency traders.

I'd love to hear from some of those folks about what they are doing, what they want and what they think is the next big thing.

Bert22306
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Sure. Gunfire control.
Bert22306   11/16/2013 6:35:09 PM
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It's not difficult to imagine that any type of control system, which one might expect to incorporate negative feedback loops, would require low latency if the feedback loops and environmental parameters are provided over digital networks. Such systems can be turned into oscillators, for example, if latency becomes excessive.

Imagine the problem of aiming a gun barrel, in a pitching and rolling ship, or a tank moving over rough terrain. Once out of the barrel, that round is purely ballistic. So the precise attitude of the platform, when the round is fired, must be known to the fire control system. Latency introduces errors. And the more the motion is random, the less clever math filtering is effective at reducing the errors.

Just one example that I think is intuitively obvious.



Radio
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As data rates begin to move beyond 25 Gbps channels, new problems arise. Getting to 50 Gbps channels might not be possible with the traditional NRZ (2-level) signaling. PAM4 lets data rates double with only a small increase in channel bandwidth by sending two bits per symbol. But, it brings new measurement and analysis problems. Signal integrity sage Ransom Stephens will explain how PAM4 differs from NRZ and what to expect in design, measurement, and signal analysis.

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