Breaking News
Comments
Newest First | Oldest First | Threaded View
Page 1 / 2   >   >>
TedS9
User Rank
Author
Re: Huge Jump in Processing Power
TedS9   7/6/2014 12:54:39 AM
NO RATINGS
There are two general categories of radiation effects.  There is long term wear out caused by cumulative exposure to ionizing radiation and there are single event effects.

Tolerance to long term exposure effects used to require custom or so-called 'rad-hard' processes.  Today, an IC manufuctured with a commercial 28nm CMOS process can tolerate in excess of 1 MegaRAD of exposure.  To put that in perspective, a 20 year geo-synchronous satellite mission is exposed to roughly 1 KiloRAD.

There are several different 'single event effects.'  All of them are caused by interaction of an IC with an energetic particle.  Particles include atmospheric neutrons, protons, alpha particles and cosmic rays or heavy ions.  The neutrons are relatively low energy  but exist in relevant concentrations at sea levels.  Cosmic rays are high energy but are a concern outside the protective magnetic field.

Single-event upsets (or SEU) is the term used to describe the change of state of storage element.  SEU is generally getting worse as devices scale but can be combatted via several 'rad tolerant by design' techniques including ECC on an SRAM or triple module redundancy at system, subsystem or cell level.

Paul A. Clayton
User Rank
Author
Methods of tolerating radiation
Paul A. Clayton   4/19/2014 4:14:41 PM
Ran Ginosar's "Survey of Processors for Space" (2012, PDF) seems to provide a decent overview of methods for tolerating radiation. Basically one can use a radiation hardened manufacturing process (e.g., RAD750), use circuit design techniques that tolerate radiation (radiation hardened by design, e.g., LEON), coarser-grained hardware or software redundancy in space or time with comparisons and retry or voting, or simply tolerate occasional incorrect function. (Obviously, these methods can be combined.)

Thermal stress is another issue more common for computing systems used in space, and, of course, energy efficiency (which is becoming increasing important in non-space use) allows reduced weight for the power source.

MS243
User Rank
Author
PowerPC
MS243   4/19/2014 1:16:13 PM
The PowerPC was not really designed as a RAD-HARD CPU -- but many of the PowerPC versions are fabricated on a process where the active layers are insulated from the substrate -- (for lower power) -- this also means that high energy particles that strike the substrate(largest cross-section of nuclei ) have much less chance of toggling or disturbing the logic  -- Gives the best performance in space for anything running above 1GHZ  -- usually they are run in pairs or triplicate because they still can be upset.   A big factor is the die size (larger features and larger die = bigger target) (larger features = somewhat harder to toggle a bit (more energy per bit) -- there are a number of different ways to get something that needs to run in a higher radiation environment to work

LarryM99
User Rank
Author
Re: Huge Jump in Processing Power
LarryM99   4/19/2014 10:23:59 AM
I'm not the expert on rad hardening, but this is the official press release from NASA.

The most popular CPU selection for most of the missions in the past seems to be PowerPC from what I have heard. Dr. Matthies described the vision processing used during the last Mars landing where the final descent was steered to avoid landing in a bad spot. I had preconceptions of full video processing, but they actually only had time to process a few still images.

I'll look around and see if I can find a copy of his presentation.

Fabio007
User Rank
Author
Re: Huge Jump in Processing Power
Fabio007   4/18/2014 11:52:02 PM
@LarryM99:

"lower voltages and smaller geometries significantly increased the resistance to radiation errors."

Was that a typo?   Do you have data backing up this claim?  

My understanding is that lower voltages and smaller geometries REDUCE the resistance to radiation errors, ie: for the ICs used in todays smartphones, exposure to radiation will increase the rate of occurence of data errors, compared to the older, larger ICs operating from higher voltages (5V).  I have heard that the old 486 was the last IC that US military would accept for radiation hardened applications.

 

rich.pell
User Rank
Author
Re: One additional trend
rich.pell   4/18/2014 8:32:33 AM
NO RATINGS
"It is going to be so fascinating to see if a commercial space business can gain traction--and when and how!"

Not a question of "if" but "when."

rick merritt
User Rank
Author
Re: One additional trend
rick merritt   4/18/2014 3:17:50 AM
NO RATINGS
@KevinCBaxter: It is going to be so fascinating to see if a commercial space business can gai traction--and when and how!

junko.yoshida
User Rank
Author
Re: Astronauts and cosmonauts
junko.yoshida   4/17/2014 10:11:22 AM
Ha, ha, that's true. But once viewed from the space, I could only imagine stupid things we do on earth would probably look even sillier!

David Ashton
User Rank
Author
Astronauts and cosmonauts
David Ashton   4/17/2014 4:54:00 AM
One wonders if the astronauts and cosmonauts look down on the borderless Earth and ponder humankinds' stupidity.

You don't have to be up in space to ponder Mankind's stupidity.......

ChipBuilder
User Rank
Author
Re: Huge Jump in Processing Power
ChipBuilder   4/16/2014 11:47:36 PM
NO RATINGS
Thank you. 

Page 1 / 2   >   >>


Datasheets.com Parts Search

185 million searchable parts
(please enter a part number or hit search to begin)
Radio
LATEST ARCHIVED BROADCAST

What are the engineering and design challenges in creating successful IoT devices? These devices are usually small, resource-constrained electronics designed to sense, collect, send, and/or interpret data. Some of the devices need to be smart enough to act upon data in real time, 24/7. Specifically the guests will discuss sensors, security, and lessons from IoT deployments.

Brought to you by:

Most Recent Comments
geekmaster
 
rick merritt
 
Doctor_Who
 
Doctor_Who
 
MeasurementBlues
 
TonyTib
 
jbhome
 
RGARVIN640
 
Sang-Yun
Like Us on Facebook
Special Video Section
The LTC2380-24 is a versatile 24-bit SAR ADC that combines ...
In this short video we show an LED light demo to ...
02:46
Wireless Power enables applications where it is difficult ...
07:41
LEDs are being used in current luxury model automotive ...
With design sizes expected to increase by 5X through 2020, ...
01:48
Linear Technology’s LT8330 and LT8331, two Low Quiescent ...
The quality and reliability of Mill-Max's two-piece ...
LED lighting is an important feature in today’s and future ...
05:27
The LT8602 has two high voltage buck regulators with an ...
05:18
Silego Technology’s highly versatile Mixed-signal GreenPAK ...
The quality and reliability of Mill-Max's two-piece ...
01:34
Why the multicopter? It has every thing in it. 58 of ...
Security is important in all parts of the IoT chain, ...
Infineon explains their philosophy and why the multicopter ...
The LTC4282 Hot SwapTM controller allows a board to be ...
This video highlights the Zynq® UltraScale+™ MPSoC, and sho...
Homeowners may soon be able to store the energy generated ...
The LTC®6363 is a low power, low noise, fully differential ...
See the Virtex® UltraScale+™ FPGA with 32.75G backplane ...
Vincent Ching, applications engineer at Avago Technologies, ...