In this handbook, we introduce the basic and advanced techniques used to apply TDR and VNA instruments to signal integrity applications.
Characterizing single-ended, differential transmission line interconnects; low-impedance PDN elements; and one-, two-, and four-port time-domain reflectometer (TDR) and vector-network analyzer (VNA) measurements -- it's all in Signal Integrity Characterization Techniques. It was originally published by the IEC, which has granted permission for this definitive work to be distributed at no charge. (Download links are at the bottom of this page and under the cover image.)
In 2008, Mike Resso, a product marketing specialist and fellow signal integrity evangelist with whom I've collaborated for almost 20 years, approached me and said he wanted to write a book. He and I had written, or presented together or with others, more than a dozen DesignCon papers illustrating the power of TDR and VNA measurement techniques to characterize the high-bandwidth electrical properties of interconnects.
I thought, "What a perfect opportunity to pull together all of this work in one place." With help from Barry Sullivan and lots of hard work from Mike, this was one of the easiest books for me to develop.
In this handbook, we pull together many of the app notes Mike and I had written as tutorials. We introduce the basic and advanced techniques used to apply TDR and VNA instruments to signal-integrity applications. While many of the examples use Agilent instruments, the setup and analysis of the measurements apply to instruments from Tektronix and Teledyne LeCroy, as well.
We start with interpreting TDR measurements of uniform transmission lines in order to get the characteristic impedance, time delay, and dielectric constant, and then advance to extracting the excess capacitance and inductance in discontinuities. We show how to use two-port and four-port measurements to measure crosstalk and differential impedance, as well as common impedance. We also explain how even-and-odd mode impedance applies.
After allying TDR measurement in the time domain, we use these same principles applied to VNA measurements in the frequency domain. We show how to use both time-domain and frequency-domain measurements as a guide to hack into interconnects to build high-bandwidth, scalable-topology-based circuit models.
Once these measurement principles are established in the book, the rest of the work contains reprints of some of the DesignCon papers in which Mike and I participated. In each paper, you can see the same principles we illustrate in the tutorial chapters applied to real-world, complex structures.
Download the book from DesignCon Community (32MB pdf, 806 pages).